The orange is the fruit
of the citrus species Citrus × sinensis
in the family Rutaceae.
It is also called sweet orange, to distinguish it
from the related Citrus × aurantium, referred to as
bitter orange. The sweet
orange reproduces asexually (apomixis
through nucellar embryony);
varieties of sweet orange arise through mutations.
The orange is a hybrid between pomelo
(Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus
The chloroplast genome, and therefore the maternal line, is that of
The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced.
Sweet orange originated in ancient China and the earliest
mention of the sweet orange was in Chinese literature in 314 BC.
As of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated
fruit tree in the world.
Orange trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates for
their sweet fruit. The fruit of the orange tree can be eaten fresh, or
processed for its juice or fragrant peel.
As of 2012, sweet oranges accounted for approximately 70% of citrus
In 2014, 70.9 million tonnes
of oranges were grown worldwide, with Brazil producing 24% of the world
total followed by China and India.
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